Women and men employment during crisis: the effects of labor market segmentation (Policy brief 312 - December 2012)
The 2008 crisis revealed in the European Union high level of gender segmentation of labor markets which, paradoxically, had a protective effect on female employment in short term. What are the mechanisms? Can we anticipate these changes? This policy brief try to provide some answers.
Women and men employment during crisis: the effects of labor market segmentation
The European Union has set itself the goal of 2020 a female employment rate of 75%. If, during the past four decades, considerable progress in terms of access to education and employment have been made, women are still penalized concerning employment because of structural inequalities in part related to gender stereotypes. Labor market segmentation between men and women has not changed a lot: according to the European Commission, during the period from 2000 to 2009, about a quarter of the employed population should have changed of profession in order to observe the same distributions between men and women. On the same period, the employment rate of women, meanwhile, rose 54% to over 58%.
The crisis that began in 2008 revealed a high level of segmentation of labor markets in the European Union (EU). It had, paradoxically, a "protective" short-term effect on female employment. In fact, men are overrepresented in the sectors the most affected during this period, including the construction industry, unlike women whose employment is concentrated in services sectors least affected. In total, the unequal distribution of men and women in activities respectively cyclic and acyclic partly explains the changes in employment by sex observed in the first episode recessive. From 2008 to 2011, three-quarters of the adjustment of employment in the EU have involved men, leading to an increase in their unemployment rate, which for the first time, is at the same level as women's. However, from 2011 the disparities between men / women fade, while fiscal adjustment could, depending on the country, influence women's employment because of their impact on public employment.
- Segmentation of the labor market, cause and consequence of inequalities between men and women
- In the short term, changes in female employment and part-time employment than in part dictate the levels of segmentation
- Within the EU, the current cise reveals the high level of gender segmentation of the labor market
- The job losses were mainly concerned men ...
- ... overrepresented in industries more cyclical
Author: Christel Gilles, Labour and Employment Department.
Keywords: Europe, recession, employment adjustment, gender inequalities.
- Policy brief 312 - Women and men employment during crisis: the effects of labor market segmentation